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Products > CCP > Pipe Designs


[Features] [Pipe Designs] [Fittings] [Manufacturing] [Fittings Production] [Installation][Special Provisions] [Dimensions] [Deflections/Bevels] [Typical Designs] [References]


The design of Concrete Cylinder Pipe conforms to AWWA Standard C303, Appendix A. The Average circumferential stress in the steel cylinder and rod reinforcement of the pipe at design pressure is limited to 50 percent of the specified minimum yield strength of the steel used in the cylinder.

The total cross-sectional area of the circumferential steel reinforcement (steel cylinder plus rod reinforcement) is;

       As = Ay + Ar
            =  PdDy


        As = total cross-sectional area of circumferential steel, mm2/m of pipe wall
        Ay = cross-sectional area of circumferential steel in the cylinder, mm2/m of pipe wall
        Ar = cross-sectional area of circumferential steel in the rod reinforcement, mm2/m of pipe wall
        Pd = design pressure, kPa
        Dy = inside diameter of steel cylinder, mm
        fs = circumferential stress in the steel cylinder at design pressure, MPa

The required circumferential steel area for a given diameter and pressure class of pipe can be provided by several combinations of steel cylinder thicknesses and rod diameters and spacing. Any combination which satisfies the following criteria may be selected.

z Minimum steel cylinder thickness shall be as follows:

Pipe Diameter Range (mm) Minimum Cylinder Thickness (mm)
300-400 1.5
450-500 1.6
600-800 1.9
900 2.3
1000-1200 2.7
1300-1500 3.4

z Minimum diameter of rod reinforcement shall be 5.6 mm.
z Minimum area of rod reinforcement shall be 493 mm2/m of pipe wall or numerically equal to 83.3 percent of the pipe diameter in mm.
z Maximum center-to-center spacing of rod reinforcement shall not exceed 50 mm.
z Design clear space between rods shall not be less than 1.3 diameters of the rod used.

Steel cylinder thicknesses and rod diameters commonly used in the manufacture of Concrete Cylinder Pipe are:

Cylinder Thickness
mm mm mm mm
1.5 2.7 5.0 8.0
1.6 3.0 5.5 8.5
1.9 3.4 6.0 9.0
2.0 3.5 6.5 9.5
2.3 4.0 7.0 10.0
2.5 4.5 7.5  
Rod Diameter
mm mm
5.6 12.0
6.0 14.0
8.0 16.0

External Loads

CCP is classified as a semi-rigid pipe. A semi-rigid pipe resembles a flexible pipe in that it will deflect slightly from external loads and obtain some supporting strength from the lateral pressure of the soil at the sides of the pipe. However, the cement-mortar lining and coating add to the pipe's strength to withstand external loads.

CCP installed in a trench with normal bedding and backfilling procedures will safely withstand external loads of up to 3 m or more of earth cover. Special bedding and backfilling procedures can be employed to accommodate abnormal or excessive loads.

Recommended bedding and backfilling procedures are included in Ameron's Installation Guide Specifications. The method of determining permissible earth cover loads on Concrete Cylinder Pipe is covered by Ameron's Design Manual 303.


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